Control and Management

Treating Type 1 Diabetes (T1D)

The main goals of treating people with T1D are:

  • Maintaining normal growth and development (particularly in children)
  • Keeping blood sugar levels within a target range (not too high, not too low)
  • Promoting healthy emotional well-being

The key to T1D control is a careful balance between food, exercise, and insulin. It’s a juggling act to keep blood glucose levels within the target range. Therefore, people with T1D should stick to scheduled blood sugar checks, insulin injections or boluses, and snack times. Even small departures from your diabetes care plan can cause blood glucose levels to rise or fall.


Food raises blood glucose levels, while insulin and exercise lower them. A good T1D treatment plan includes:

  • Eating reasonably, consistently, and on schedule
  • Testing blood sugar levels regularly
  • Adjusting insulin based on blood sugar levels and activities
  • Exercising regularly