This study was an attempt to the use broad-based techniques to identify novel markers unique to T1D that could provide insight into the T1D disease process and whose measurement could be used for more accurate and precise disease prediction and/or diagnosis than the currently available autoantibody measurements. The laboratory technique used allows for the highly sensitive and selective determination of proteins in complex fluids, such as blood. After identifying relevant compounds in the samples from individuals with T1D, the investigators found and further validated the protein markers in a patient group consisting of 100 healthy controls and 50 individuals with T1D. Further, blood samples from 50 individuals with T2D confirmed that the identified markers were specific to T1D. Interestingly, the identified T1D-associated proteins are known to play a role in the various steps of an immune response, suggesting novel mechanisms in the T1D disease process.
Ramifications for Individuals with T1D:
This study shows that dysregulation of the innate immune response is a characteristic of T1D and generates unique markers that can differentiate T1D patients from nondiabetics and from T2D patients. Furthermore, the innate immune pathways identified with this novel approach may point to new strategies in diagnosis, intervention, and prevention of T1D.
Investigators and Institutions:
This study was led by Dr. Thomas O. Metz at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
Zhang Q, Fillmore TL, Schepmoes AA, Clauss TR, Gritsenko MA, Mueller PW, Rewers M, Atkinson MA, Smith RD, Metz TO. (2012) Serum proteomics reveals systemic dysregulation of innate immunity in type 1 diabetes. J Exp Med. 2013 Jan 14;210(1):191-203. doi: 10.1084/jem.20111843. Epub 2012 Dec 31.