Separately, research on anti-CD3 antibodies has progressed to the most advanced stage of clinical testing: Phase III trials. The studies are being conducted by two of JDRF’s Industry Discovery and Development partners that have entered into global alliances with pharmaceutical companies to develop and commercialize the treatments. In one trial, JDRF partner MacroGenics and Eli Lilly and Co. are evaluating the drug teplizumab. More than 530 people with recent-onset type 1 diabetes are enrolled in the study, which is taking place across 14 countries. In the second trial, JDRF partner Tolerx and GlaxoSmithKline are evaluating the drug otelixizumab in 240 people. Participants in that trial are being given an “optimized dose” that is only a fraction of the amount used in earlier evaluations but that maintains the same benefits. The trial is being conducted at over 100 study centers throughout Europe and North America.